Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) systems such as smart cards, or mobile phone based charging are allowing us to collect long-term data records of user behaviour. This information can be used to optimize a transport network including network structure and fares, though understanding and predicting demand elasticities remains a challenging topic. At the same time, new AFC technologies are not only a data source but also allow operators to introduce complex fare structures including spatial, temporal and user group distinguished charging. The talk will discuss some of these trends and possibilities, such as changes from flat or zonal to distance-based fares and price capping. Potential impacts for single travelers as well as specific parts of a hypothetical city will be discussed to illustrate that some cities understandably hesitate to use the full potential of now possible charging structures.